Thursday, October 6, 2016

Types and principle of action of antibiotics

Current antibiotics – class, precept bastianutti include an in depth organization of medicinal tablets that show pastime to micro organism, inhibit the boom and development or destroy them. this is one of the most crucial organizations of drugs, which today may be very actual. way to them, maximum infectious diseases due to such pathogens can be dealt with.
The very first substance that destroys micro-organisms became penicillin. It was opened in 1922 with the aid of the English microbiologist A. Fleming. today there are more than one hundred special representatives of this pharmacological group of medicinal approach. modern antibiotics are divided into types based on numerous criteria – the character of the effect on microorganisms and antimicrobial spectrum, the direction of motion, chemical shape and method of receipt.
Penicillin is a natural antibiotic, which is a means of battle for lifestyles of fungi and actinomycetes. through the provision of penicillin, they inhibit the increase and replica of micro organism than offer their own superiority in relation to the dietary environment.

Sorts in line with the character of the effect
the character of the effect on bacterial cells secrete 2 forms of media, which consist of:
tablets bacteriostatic movement – inhibit the increase, improvement and reproduction of microorganisms. Their application stops the infectious procedure within the frame, that permits the immune machine to ruin bacterial cells (chloramphenicol).
tablets of bactericidal action – wreck the bacterial mobile, thereby decreasing their variety within the frame (cephalosporins, amoxicillin).
some micro organism, after their dying and the destruction of the mobile wall, secrete into the blood huge amounts of poisonous substances (endotoxins). In this situation, indicates the usage of bacteriostatic drugs.

The spectrum of movement
The action spectrum shows the wide variety of various varieties of bacteria towards which the drug is energetic. This criterion involves the following companies of antibiotics:
large spectrum – lively in opposition to most microorganisms, pathogens of human infectious illnesses (cephalosporins, amoxicillin included with clavulanic acid).
narrow spectrum antibiotics – inhibit or spoil just a few species of microorganisms (anti-TB approach).

In the case of most diseases, drugs used huge-spectrum. If necessary, the Definition of sensitivity to antibioticantibiotics laboratory determination of sensitivity to antibiotics – it is bacteriological isolation of bacteria from the affected person with their next cultivation on a nutrient medium with the drug. the dearth of growth of colonies indicates the sensitivity to the bacteria.

In the direction of motion
This class affords a department into species in step with their main interest towards one of a kind agencies of microorganisms:
Antibacterial sellers – the actual antibiotics used to treat most infectious sicknesses.
Antineoplastic dealers – substances derived from a mold, have the capability to have an effect on the course of the cancer manner by means of inhibiting the multiplication of cancer cells.
Antifungal – destroying fungal cells.
in relation to antifungal retailers, there may be an ongoing dialogue whether or not to include them in one row with antibiotics.

The approach of obtaining
Getting antibiotics these days has numerous versions. consequently possible distinguish the subsequent agencies:
natural – extracted immediately from moulds.
Semi-artificial is likewise remoted from the mould, but to decorate the hobby and spectrum of motion, is the chemical change of molecules of herbal materials.
artificial – a molecule produced only with the aid of chemical way.

The sorts of chemical shape
The chemical shape determines the character, variety and path of the consequences of antibacterial capsules. The chemical structure there are the subsequent kinds:
Beta-lactams – molecule contains a lactams ring. This shape is normal shit of such a lot of specific representatives of this group – penicillins and their analogues, cephalosporins, carbapenems. all of them have a bactericidal effect and a vast spectrum.
Macrolides – molecule complex has a cyclic shape, it is pretty effective medicines which are effective in opposition to micro organism, intracellular parasites (chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma).
Tetracycline is quite toxic drugs which have a bacteriostatic effect, consequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria that produce endotoxins (brucellosis, Receipt of antibiotics, vancomycin is the synthetic proizvoditelyami, anthrax).
Levomicetina is also pretty poisonous capsules with bacteriostatic effect. they're active towards pathogens of intestinal infections and meningitis.
Aminoglycosides, a incredibly poisonous antibacterial capsules, their use these days is more restricted, being used most effective in very intense infectious system (sepsis – blood contamination).
The glycopeptides – a modern antibacterial pills, that have a suggested activity against most pathogens of bacterial infections (vancomycin).
TB equipment – hepatotoxic medicine (damage to liver cells), that are active simplest in opposition to tubercle bacilli (TB).
nowadays, those most important agencies of drugs are used to treat various infectious illnesses. To prevent the improvement of chronicity of the system and resistance of micro organism, it is very essential to use them in step with the hints of rational antibiotic remedy.